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Glossary


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And this page contains important computing-related terms, definitions, information, but also short explanations (and only the short ones). Again, same as in other similar pages on my website (especially articles, hints, rules etc.), the page contains and will contain the "personal" ones (terms, definitions, info that I've wrote), as well as others that I've found browsing the web and reading articles written by others. But note, for the non-personal ones, they will at least contain modified text, i.e. the text that I wrote in my own words (and not just copied and pasted the text written by someone else), while usually the general point remains the same as in the original article. So here at the beginning, there are only few of the most commonly used computing-related terms and abbreviations, i.e. only those are listed, that I collected from various help-files, articles, MS knowledge-bases etc. Then there is a basic explanation of different "parts" that URL is built of. After that, there are only listed links to the most crucial explanations of computing terms on the same Explanation Guide Info homesite as that document above. So for the "real" list, rather see or download my old "glossary.html" page: /script/Unsorted-Terms.html with various other additional terms listed. And finally at the bottom there are other a bit longer explanations of various computing-related terms. These were also collected from various help-files, articles, knowledge-bases etc., and note that there is a note on information-source above each of them. Further, also check out the IT-Abbreviations.doc file: /script/IT-Abbreviations.doc, which contains the "official" list of computing and IT abbreviations that I got on Wikipedia and Explanation Guide sites. Oh, and as an interesting discovery; I found out today (12.2.2006) on the NationMaster website: http://www.nationmaster.com that they link to my "glossary.html" page here: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/List-of-computing-and-IT-abbreviations, which finally links to page on the Factbites website: http://www.factbites.com, particularly to this page here: http://www.factbites.com/topics/List-of-computing-and-IT-abbreviations.





LINKS TO SYSTEM-RELATED TERMS


World Wide Web, Internet, IP address, Website, Webpage, MAC address, Hostname, Name server

Computer, Computing, Personal-computer, Hardware, Computer-hardware, Processor, Central-processing-unit, Graphics-card, BIOS, Firmware, Device-driver

Input, Output, Data, Cache, System, Object, Pointer, Buffer, Sequence, Subroutine, Instruction, Information, Variable, Context-switch, Program, Software, Computer-software, Computer-program, System-software, Application-software, Application

Task, Thread, Process, Computer-process, Window, Icon, Application-Programming-Interface, Process-management, Memory-management, Program-loader, Debugger, Library, Computer-multitasking, Graphical-user-interface, Command-line-interpreter

OS, operating system, Server, Workstation, MS-DOS, Microsoft-Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac-OS, Microsoft, Windows-API, Microsoft-Windows, Microsoft-Windows-NT, Microsoft-Windows-2000, Windows-XP, Windows-Server-2003






UNIFORM-RESOURCE-LOCATOR PARTS


A typical URL looks like this (the example is link to Yahoo Help for the so-called AddressBook): http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ab/index.html, and because you might want to block some parts of a domain (while allowing other parts of the same domain), you should understand what comprises an URL. Also note that the fully quallified domain name" (abbreviated FQDN) is: "subdomain.domainname.highleveldomain".



http://

The application protocol used to make the connection. The most common protocol for browsing the Web is http. Your browser assumes this is the application protocol if you don't enter one. Other commonly used protocols include ftp, and gopher.



.com

The root domain or top-level domain. There are several familiar root domains, including .com, .net, .edu, .org, .mil, and .gov. There are also two-letter root domains for most countries, such as .ca for Canada and .uk for United Kingdom.



www

www is generally known to be a so-called "subdomain".



yahoo

Yahoo in this particular example is known to be a "second-level domain".



yahoo.com

The Yahoo's domain name or so-called "root domain". This is the domain with which the browser establishes a connection. A domain frequently refers to a single company or organization that might have multiple websites on the Internet.



help.yahoo.com

One of Yahoo's hosts/servers, similar to my.yahoo.com, http://geocities.yahoo.com or simply http://www.yahoo.com. This is the particular Web website with which the browser communicates. It is also the name for which DNS provides an IP address.



help/us/ab

The folder or directory tree. It contains the file that is to be accessed; similar to the "/tayiper/script/" sub-folder on a host hosting my site's pages or to normal folder/directory structure on a local hard-disk.



index.html

The file. This is the file-name of the file that is to be accessed. IThe "index.html" in particular is usually used as a "opening" page (i.e. default page on a respective website), meaning that if no page is specified in the link (e.g. http://tadej-ivan.50webs.com), the browser automatically directs you to this (e.g. http://tadej-ivan.50webs.com/index.html) page.






SHORT COMPUTING-RELATED TERMS



MSN = Microsoft Network

RDF = Resource Description Framework

OEM = Original Equipment Manufacturer

OSD = On-Screen Display

CLI = Command Line Interface

BAM = Born Again Modularization

MFC = Microsoft Foundation Classes

ATL = Advanced Template Library

OSF = Open Software Foundation

IRC = Internet Relay Chat

PDF = Portable Document Format

DCE = Distributed Computing Environment

AGP = Accelerated Graphics Port

IDE = Integrated Development Environment

EULA = End User License Agreement


PIF = Program Information File

ASP = Application Service Provider

DDR = Double Data Rate

CGI = Common Gateway Interface

SVG = Scalable Vector Graphics

FPS = Frames Per Second

VPU = Visual Proccesing Unit

DTR = Data Terminal Ready

DND = Drag And Drop

CCP = Cut, Copy and Paste

WMI = Windows Management Instrumentation

DOS = Disk Operating System

FAT = File Allocation Table

NTFS = New Technology File System

MDAC = Microsoft Data Access Components


URL = Uniform Resource Locator

MAC = Media Access Control

DNS = Domain Name System

UDP = User Datagram Protocol

DTD = Document Type Definition

DOM = Document Object Model

XML = Extensible Markup Language

ARP = Address Resolution Protocol

ISP = Internet Service Provider

NSP = Name Service Providers

LSP = Layered Service Providers

RAS = Remote Access Service

VPN = Virtual Private Network

RVA = Relative Virtual Address

IMAP = Internet Message Access Protocol


SATA = Serial ATA

PATA = Paralel ATA

TIS = Tool Interface Standard

PMC = Project Management Committee

DDE = Dynamic Data Exchange (Server)

PDE = Plug-in Development Environment

JDT = Java Development Tools

JRE = Java Runtime Environment

IRQ = Interrupt Requests

HAL = Hardware Abstraction Layer

PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect

IDE = Integrated Drive Electronics

ATA = Advanced Technology Attachment

OCR = Optical Character Recognition

IMAPI = Image Mastering Applications Programming Interface
API = Application Programming Interface

HID = Human Interface Devices

CMS = Contement Management System

DDK = Driver Development Kit

SDK = Software Developer Kit

COM = Component Object Model

ROT = Running Object Table

OLE = Object Linking and Embedding

CGA = Color Graphics Array

GUI = Graphical User Interface

GDI = Graphics Device Interface

BSOD = Blue Screen of Death

CD-R = Compact Disc-Recordable

CD-RW = Compact Disc-Rewritable

CMOS = Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor
DDL = Dynamic Lynk Library

IPC = Interprocess Communications

IAT = Import Address Table

CSV = Comma Separated Value

CVS = Concurrent Versioning System

RCM = Resource Configuration Management

CRC = Cyclic Redundancy Check

ADO = ActiveX Data Object

FIFO = First In First Out

COFF = Common Object File Format

CSE = Computer Science Engineering

IDCT = Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform

SENS = System Event Notification Service

ACPI = Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

SMART = Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology








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